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Akkermansia muciniphila and improved metabolic health during a dietary intervention in obesity: relationship with gut microbiome richness and ecology

Maria Carlota Dao, Amandine Everard, Judith Aron-Wisnewsky, Nataliya Sokolovska, Edi Prifti, Eric O Verger, Brandon D Kayser, Florence Levenez, Julien Chilloux, Lesley Hoyles, MICRO-Obes Consortium, Marc-Emmanuel Dumas, Salwa W Rizkalla, Joel Doré

Gut 2016;65:426-436 Published Online First: 22 June 2015 doi:10.1136/gutjnl-2014-308778 

Abstract
 

OBJECTIVE

Individuals with obesity and type 2 diabetes differ from lean and healthy individuals in their abundance of certain gut microbial species and microbial gene richness. Abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila, a mucin-degrading bacterium, has been inversely associated with body fat mass and glucose intolerance in mice, but more evidence is needed in humans. The impact of diet and weight loss on this bacterial species is unknown. Our objective was to evaluate the association between faecal A. muciniphila abundance, faecal microbiome gene richness, diet, host characteristics, and their changes after calorie restriction (CR).

DESIGN

The intervention consisted of a 6-week CR period followed by a 6-week weight stabilisation diet in overweight and obese adults (N=49, including 41 women). Faecal A. muciniphila abundance, faecal microbial gene richness, diet and bioclinical parameters were measured at baseline and after CR and weight stabilisation.

RESULTS

At baseline A. muciniphila was inversely related to fasting glucose, waist-to-hip ratio and subcutaneous adipocyte diameter. Subjects with higher gene richness and A. muciniphila abundance exhibited the healthiest metabolic status, particularly in fasting plasma glucose, plasma triglycerides and body fat distribution. Individuals with higher baseline A. muciniphila displayed greater improvement in insulin sensitivity markers and other clinical parameters after CR. These participants also experienced a reduction in A. muciniphila abundance, but it remained significantly higher than in individuals with lower baseline abundance. A. muciniphila was associated with microbial species known to be related to health.

CONCLUSIONS

A. muciniphila is associated with a healthier metabolic status and better clinical outcomes after CR in overweight/obese adults. The interaction between gut microbiota ecology and A. muciniphila warrants further investigation.

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IBD 13.03.2015

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